Total Cost of Ownership TCO
Definitions, Meaning Explained, Example Calculations

Posted Courtesy of Marty Shcmidt.

Acquiring certain assets like water or wastewater treatment plants brings significant purchase costs but these can be overshadowed by other large costs that appear during a long service life. Total cost of ownership (TCO) analysis attempts to uncover both the obvious costs and the ?hidden? costs of ownership.

Waterform Technologies places a emphasis on TCO as it is in clients best interest rather than just taking a capital price approach and therefore leaving?real?value aside. This article?uses anecdotes from the IT industry however it can be applied anywhere in business purchasing.

For certain assets, purchase price and ownership cost can be very different.


What is Total cost of ownership?

Total Cost of Ownership(TCO) is an analysis meant to uncover all the lifetime costs that follow from owning certain kinds of assets. As a result, TCO is sometimes called?life cycle cost analysis.

Asset ownership brings purchase costs, of course, but ownership also brings costs due to installing, deploying, using, upgrading, and maintaining the same assets. These after-purchase costs can be substantial. Consequently, for many kinds of assets, TCO analysis finds a very large difference between purchase price and total life cycle costs. And, the difference can be especially large when ownership covers a long time period. As a result, TCO analysis sends a very strong message to corporate buyers, capital review groups, and asset managers:

Consider TCO instead of purchase price when making purchase decisions!

Who Uses TCO?

Those who purchase or manage computing systems have had a keen interest in TCO?since the late 1980s. At that time, IT industry analysts began publishing studies showing very large difference between IT systems prices and systems costs. And, not surprisingly, these soon got the attention?of IT vendor sales teams and marketers.

Competitors of IBM, for instance, used their own TCO results to argue that IBM systems were overly expensive to own and operate. This kind of argument is possible because the five year total cost of ownership for major hardware and software systems?from any vendor?can be five to ten times the hardware and software purchase price.

Today,?TCO analysis supports purchase decisions for a wide range of assets. These include especially assets with large maintenance and operating costs across ownership life. Total cost of ownership is therefore center stage when leaders face purchase decisions for large IT systems, vehicles, buildings, laboratory equipment, medical equipment, factory machines, and private aircraft, for instance.

As a result, TCO for these kinds of assets is a central focus in the following:

  • Budgeting and planning
  • Asset life cycle management
  • Prioritizing capital purchase proposals.
  • Evaluating capital project proposals
  • Vendor selection.
  • Lease vs. buy decisions.

Explaining TCO in context

Sections below further explains and illustrates Total cost of ownership in context with related business concepts from the fields of asset management, budgeting, and cost accounting.

Related topics

  • Asset economic life, service life, depreciable life: See?Economic Life.
  • Asset life cycle management: See?Asset.
  • TCO analysis in the business case and capital funding: See?Business Case.

TCO analysis covers?ownership life, but how long is life?

Cost of ownership analysis attempts to uncover both the obvious costs and the so-called ?hidden? costs of ownership across the?full ownership life cycle of the acquisition.?Usually, however,?there is room for judgment and different opinions regarding the?appropriate lifespan to analyze.

In?defining ownership life,?owners may consider several ?lives? that are in view:

  • Depreciable life.
    The number of years over which owners charge depreciation expense for an asset is its?depreciable?life. Accounting standards and local tax laws prescribe what this expense should be each year. Impacts due to this expense include the following:

    • Lower book value for the asset.
    • Lower reported income (lower profit)
    • A tax savings for owners, due to the lower reported income.
  • Economic life.
    The number of years for which the asset returns more value to owners than it costs to own, operate, and maintain. When these costs exceed returns, the acquisition is beyond its economic life.
  • Service life.
    The number of years the asset is actually in service.

All of the above lives may be different and all may contribute to the owner?s judgment as to the length of the ownership life. In addition, however, the lifespan for TCO?may also depend on the owner?s purpose?for?the analysis.

TCO for budgeting and planning purposes. TCO for strategic decision support.

Firms sometimes set?ownership life?as the complete time that ownership has financial impact. This is the rule in two cases. Firstly, when TCO analysis supports budgeting?and planning activities. And, secondly, when TCO supports strategic decision making. In these cases:

  • Ownership life starts when the acquisition begins causing costs. Note especially, this may occur before the asset arrives or goes into service (see the ?hidden cost? categories in the next section).
  • Ownership life ends when the asset has no financial impact of any kind. This means that all costs due to disposal or decommission are past, and it no longer contributes to a balance sheet asset account.

TCO for an arbitrary number of years

Alternatively,?TCO analysis may cover an arbitrary number of years, for example, 3 years, 5 years, or 10 years. This approach is usual when:

  • The purpose of TCO analysis is to?help choose a vendor from competing proposals.
  • The TCO analysis helps prioritize competing capital acquisition proposals.
  • The actual economic life or service life of the acquisition is uncertain.
  • The firm?s?asset life cycle management?polices and practices dictate specific life spans for classes of assets.

How does TCO uncover hidden costs across asset life cycle?

TCO analysis begins when the owner?identifies or defines two things:

  • Firstly, the specific resource or asset to acquire.
  • Secondly, ownership life for analysis. Ownership life is almost always given as a number of years with known starting and ending dates.

TCO analysis continues when the analyst identifies important cost?categories?likely to have cost impacts due to ownership. To be sure the study includes all important costs, TCO analysts consider two kinds of cost categories. These are, firstly,?obvious costs,and secondly,?hidden costs.

1. Obvious costs in TCO analysis

Obvious costs in TCO?are the costs familiar to everyone during planning and vendor selection, such as:

  • Purchase cost😕 The actual price.
  • Maintenance costs: These are due to warranty costs, maintenance labor, contracted maintenance services or?other?service contracts.

2. Hidden costs in TCO analysis

The so-called hidden costs are the less obvious costs due to ownership?costs that are easy to overlook or omit from acquisition decisions and planning. Costs of this kind can be very large and real, nevertheless. The discovery that hidden costs for certain assets can be quite large is in fact the reason TCO analysis exists.

All hidden costs that turn up in TCO analysis belong in the TCO summary if both conditions apply:

  • Firstly, the costs are indeed due to the decision to own something
  • Secondly, the costs are?material (large enough to matter).

Hidden costs may include:

  • Acquisition costs: These can include costs due to identifying, selecting, ordering, receiving, inventorying, and purchasing. Any of these costs can signal the start of ownership life for the analysis.
  • Upgrade, Enhancement, Refurbishing costs.
  • Reconfiguration costs.
  • Set up and Deployment costs: Costs due to configuring space, transporting, installing, setting up, integrating, and outside services.
  • Operating costs: For example, costs due to human operator labor, or energy costs and fuel costs.
  • Change management: costs: For example, costs due to user orientation, user training, and workflow or process change.
  • Infrastructure support costs:?For example, costs of heating, lighting, cooling, or IT support costs due to asset acquisition.
  • Environmental impact costs: For example, costs due to waste disposal, clean up, and pollution control. These may also include costs due to environmental compliance reporting.
  • Insurance costs.
  • Security costs:
    • Physical security, For example,?costs due to building locks, secure entry doors, closed circuit television, and security services.
    • Electronic security, For example, costs due to security software, offsite data backup, and disaster recovery services.
  • Financing costs: For example, costs due to loan interest and loan origination fees.
  • Disposal / Decommission costs.
  • Depreciation expense?tax savings (a negative cost).

The list of hidden cost categories above could of course extend further for many kinds of acquisitions.

Where do you find the TCO cost categories?

TCO analysis uncovers obvious and hidden costs when the analyst anticipates cost impacts in all the categories above?and sometimes more. The analyst, in other words, creates an?inventory?of cost categories. Consequently, the analyst begins finding cost categories by interviewing those familiar with the asset?s usage.

In addition, suggestions for finding relevant cost categories may come from other sources, including:

  • Firstly, the owner?s experience with other assets in the current setting or another setting.
  • Secondly, local policies for asset life cycle management.
  • Thirdly, industry standards. These may come from publishing consultants as well as professional standards organizations.
  • Fourthly, vendor recommendations and vendor experience.
  • Fifthly, published TCO analyses from other analysts and publishing consultants.
  • Sixthly, project plans for using the asset. These should include, at a minimum, resource requirements for labor and energy. Project plans, in fact, should include a complete work breakdown analysis.
  • Finally?and very importantly?the firm?s long range?business plan. Sources in the plan include the firm?s business model, with revenue and cost forecasts for major categories. And, the plan should also anticipate cost trends due to inflation, price changes, customer demand, technology, and government regulation.

Do TCO results reflect the analyst?s personal judgment?

Simply naming?the cost of ownership subject does not fix boundaries for the analysis. The analyst must still decide and communicate which costs belong in the analysis and why. Consider, for example, the?case when TCO analysis applies to a potential IT system acquisition.

  • IT TCO comparisons from publishing analysts tend to focus narrowly?on costs due to purchase, maintenance, and very direct operating costs. Here the emphasis is on comparing different vendor solutions fairly.
  • IT?TCO analyses from sales people, consultants, or managers for specific settings usually have a broader scope, aiming at a more inclusive?total lifetime cost. This is because these analyses intend to predict budget impacts accurately. Also, these analyses may have to compare TCOs for quite different kinds of proposal actions.

In each of these situations, the TCO analysis serves a?different purpose, and each calls for its own cost model (see next section). When using TCO results,?remember that analyst judgment plays a role choosing which cost categories?belong in the analysis and which do not. This is because analysts are free to choose categories that best?serve the purpose of decision makers and planners.

In conclusion, when a TCO?analysis?compares?different scenarios or action plans,?be sure that all scenarios use the same TCO cost model.

What is the TCO cost model? Why is the cost model centerpiece of the TCO analysis?

The TCO analysis?continues by designing?a comprehensive?cost model?that covers the TCO subject through ownership life while supporting the decision maker needs.

Making the step from a complete inventory of obvious?and hidden cost categories, to?a comprehensive cost model, requires the analyst to?look for specifics in these areas:

  • Firstly, the kinds of resources appearing in each of the cost categories.
  • Secondly, activities due to ownership, in each of the cost categories.

Why does the analyst invest time and effort in going beyond the?list?of cost categories to organize them as?cost model? There are two reasons for the model:

  1. Firstly,?remember that?a list is?only that. A list does not by itself communicate?completeness. In a successful TCO cost model, however, completeness is self-evident to both the analyst and to those who use TCO results.
  2. Secondly, the cost model structure provides a framework for a very informative kind of cost analysis in its own right. Sections below show how the cost model itself reveals spending issues that are not obvious in the TCO cash flow statement.

For a more on cost modeling (resource-based modeling and activity-based modeling) please see?Business Case Essentials.

TCO cost model example

The cost model in Exhibit 1 below?is?simply a two-dimensional matrix whose cells represent categories that could have cost impacts due to ownership. Here, for?example is a TCO model for an IT system acquisition.

COST MODEL Acquisition Costs Operating Costs Change Costs
Software Obvious costs Obvious costs Hidden costs
Hardware Obvious costs Obvious costs Hidden costs
Personnel Hidden costs Hidden costs Hidden costs
NW & Comm Hidden costs Hidden costs Hidden costs
Facilities Hidden costs Hidden costs Hidden costs

Exhibit 1. TCO cost model for an IT system acquisition. Rows are resource categories and columns are IT life cycle stages. The contents of each cell are individual resource items. Exhibit 2, below, shows typical cost items for two cells in the Exhibit 1 model.

Note that here, the vertical axis?represents?IT?resource categories?while the horizontal axis represents?IT life cycle stages. The model design succeeds?when it achieves two objectives:

  • Firstly, each axis?covers?the complete set of?categories?for one dimension, Resources or Life cycle stages. Each axis includes all categories on that dimension that are useful to decision makers and planners.
  • Secondly, the cost categories capture obvious costs and also the less-obvious hidden costs.

The two axes, that is,?should convey self-evident completeness. If?they do,?there should be no unpleasant cost surprises later, during implementation. And, the analyst should never have to answer questions such as: Why didn?t?you include this? Or that?

Examples below show that the choice of cost categories for each axis gives the model power for analysis and communication.

Add individual resources to categories

The TCO analyst continues by adding the?names?of resources to each cell. Resource items that go together?in a cell have two characteristics:

  • Firstly, owners plan and manage together all resource items in a cell.
  • Secondly, various resource items in a single cell may have the same?cost drivers.

For a planning an IT System acquisition,?two of the model?s cells might hold the resource names in Exhibit 2:

Acquisition / Hardware Costs
2nd row, 1st column
Operating Costs / Personnel
3rd row, 2nd column
? ?Server system purchase
?? PC system purchase
?? Engineering workstation purchase
?? Storage space purchase
?? Other peripheral HW purchase
?? Administrative labor
?? Systems operators
?? Systems programmers
?? Applications programmers
?? Network admin labor
?? Storage management
?? IT management
?? Other Admin
?? Trouble shooting labor
?? Continuing contract labor
?? Continuing training (professional)

Exhibit 2. Resource items in two cost model categories.

Other cells in the same model have similar resource lists. As a result, the full model helps assure TCO analysts and owners that every important cost item due to ownership is in view. And, it helps assure everyone that the analysis excludes costs?not?due to ownership. As the following sections show, it is also a powerful tool for analyzing life cycle costs.

Finally, the cost model helps assure all involved that scenario comparisons are fair and objective. One model can do this if the single model design covers all relevant costs in all scenarios. Of course some items may have 0 values in one scenario?and non zero values in?others. As a result, using one model with the same cost categories?for all scenarios shows everyone that TCO comparisons between scenarios are fair.

How do cash flow estimates build the total cost of ownership result?

The cost model (above) provides the TCO analyst with a list of cost items?the contents of all the model cells. The analyst must then estimate cost figures?for each item, for each scenario, looking forward to each year of the analysis

Exhibit 3 below, for example, shows analyst estimates for just one cost item: Server System Purchase.

Cash flow estimate estimates for one TCO cost item

Exhibit 3. When the TCO analysis has 2 scenarios and a 3-year life in view, the analyst makes 6 cost estimates for each item. Here, the cost item?Server system purchase?appears in two TCO scenarios:?Business as Usual?and?Proposal. Each year?s?incremental?cash flow estimate calculates therefore as:
Incremental Cash Flow?=?Proposal Estimate???Business as Usual Estimate.

Methods for making these estimates are beyond the scope of this article, but very briefly, the analyst will use several kinds of information to make these estimates. For the IT example, the analyst forecasts?cost drivers for each item, under each scenario. These may include, for example, costs due to numbers of users, transaction volumes, and storage space needs. The analyst will also consider information from the vendor, experience with similar systems in other settings, and industry standards and guidelines.

Cash flow estimates for scenario cash flow statements

With cost categories and cost items from the cost model, the analyst can build the primary analytic tools in the TCO study:?cash flow statements?for each scenario.

Exhibit 4 below?shows?cash flow statement structure. Note especially that many line items from the model are omitted here, so as to show the structure clearly.

Example TCO cash flow

Exhibit 4. A TCO analysis with two action scenarios (Proposal and Business as Usual) has three cash flow statements. And, all three have the same cost items and structure, as in the example above. The analyst therefore produces two?full value?statements (such as the statement above) and one?incrementalstatement. In the incremental statement, each figure calculates as the Proposal scenario estimate less the Business as Usual estimate.

The cash flow statements are in one sense?children of the cost model. This is because cash flow statements take line items from the model and thus retain some of the model?s structure.?In brief, the cash flow statements have?the parent model?s vertical axis categories. However, ?in the horizontal dimension, the statements present a?time line covering the?TCO analysis period instead of life cycle stages. The task for the?TCO analyst is to?estimate cost figures for each year, due to each item, for all scenarios.

Example: consider two possible scenarios

  1. Proposal: System Acquisition.
  2. Business as Usual.

The Business as Usual scenario is an important part of any TCO analysis. It recognizes that owners will still spend money on many of the same IT cost items, even without the new system. As a result, the Business as Usual scenario therefore serves as a?baselinefor comparison. In fact the baseline provides the only way to measure cost savings and avoided costs. For this reason, the TCO analyst uses scenarios 1 and 2 to construct a third scenario:

  1. The Incremental Scenario.

This scenario simply shows the cost?differences?between corresponding line items on scenarios (1) and (2). Note especially, again. that all?three?cash flow scenarios have the same structure (as above) because they all derive from the same cost model.

Finally, the TCO Analyst will use the ?bottom lines? of the?cash flow statements?to compare scenarios?using standard?financial metrics, such as

And, if the Proposal scenario shows cost savings, or avoided costs, relative to Business as usual, the analyst can apply investment metrics to the incremental cash flow values, such as:

For more on these metric, see the articles linked to metrics names above.

Cost savings appear in the incremental cash flow statement

When Proposal Scenario costs in some areas are?lower?than the corresponding Business as Usual Scenario costs, the Incremental cash flow statement therefore shows?cost savings?in these areas. As a result, cost savings can be treated as?cash inflows.

When cost savings are present, the analyst can approach the incremental cash flow statement with?investment-oriented metrics?such as return on investment, internal rate of return, and payback period. All of these metrics require cash inflows as well as outflows. And, these appear only on the incremental statement.

TCO cost savings and financial metrics

In that case, a TCO analysis summary might include an array of financial metrics that looks like Exhibit 5.

3-Year Figures in $1,000 Proposed
as Usual
Total Cost of Ownership $14,256 $17,258 $(3,002)
Capital Expenses (CAPEX) $1,219 $707 $511
Operating Expenses (OPEX) $13,037 $16,550 $(3,513)
Net Cash Flow ? ? $2,981
Net Present Value @8% (NPV) ? ? $2,365
Internal Rate of Return (IRR) ? ? 121%
Return on Investment (ROI) ? ? 24.9%
Payback Period ? ? 7 months

Exhibit 5. Comparing two TCO scenarios with financial metrics. Notice especially that the ?invesment metrics? apply only to the Incremental cash flow summary.

Negative values (in parentheses) indicate cost?savings?under the Proposal scenario relative to Business as Usual. Those who want to understand fully the basis for these metrics from must review all three cash flow statements.

The TCO results above?seem to show a clear advantage for choosing the Proposal Scenario over Business as Usual.?However, the analyst?s work continues. After reviewing the above, for instance, questions such as the following will arise.

? If we implement the Proposal Scenario Acquisition??

  • Which cost areas represent the greatest risks? And, which areas therefore need full management attention?
  • Which cost areas are most important in driving overall TCO results?
  • What can we do to control and minimize costs??

The analyst addresses such questions by returning to the cost model?itself (next section).

Total cost of ownership illustrated with an example

Cost model categories for the cost model rows and columns?were chosen to represent cost areas that need careful planning and control?over a three year period. ?Once the?scenario cash flow estimates exist (previous section), the?analyst can use the model to show?cost dynamics not easily seen in the?cash flow statements.

Here, the cost model cells in Exhibits 6A, 6B, and 6C hold 3-year totals for items in each cell. The figures that go into each sum, of course, come from the cash flow statements.

Proposal System Acquisition Scenario

$ in 1,000s Acquisition Costs Operating Costs Change Costs Total % of
??Software 444 121 220 ?785 5.5%
??Hardware 874 222 122 ? 1,218 8.5%
??Personnel 188 5,699 3,925 9,812 68.8%
??NW & Comm 255 1,082 892 2,229 15.6%
??Facilities 60 46 106 212 1.5%
Total 1,821 7,170 5,264 14,256 ?
% of TCO 12.8% 50.3% 36.9% ? 100.0%

Exhibit 6A. Three-year cost estimates for the Proposal scenario.

Business as Usual Scenario

$ in 1,000s Acquisition Costs Operating Costs Change Costs Total % of
??Software 274 82 138 494 2.9%
??Hardware 539 97 71 707 4.1%
??Personnel 55 8,873 5,952 14,879 86.2%
??NW & Comm 146 543 459 1,149 6.7%
??Facilities 0 15 15 29 0.2%
Total 1,104 9,610 6,634 17,258 ?
% of TCO 5.9% 55.7% 38.4% ? 100.0%

Exhibit 6B. Three-year cost estimates for the Business as Usual scenario.

Incremental Cash Flow (Proposal less Business as Usual)

$ in 1,000s?? Acquisition Costs Operating Costs Change Costs
??Software 170 38 83
??Hardware 335 125 51
??Personnel 133 (3174) (2027)
??NW Comm 109 539 432
??Facilities 60 31 91

Exhibit 6C. Incremental totals for cost estimates. Each cell represents the value from a cell in Exhibit 6A, less the corresponding cell vale in Exhibit 6B. Negative incremental values in parentheses indicate cost savings under the proposal scenario.

The analysis in these three tables provides a wealth of useful information that management can put to good use, regardless of which scenario they choose to implement. The next section discusses just a few of the messages brought out by the cost model analysis.

What can TCO can tell you? What does TCO analysis reveal?

TCO Analysis can uncover ?hidden? costs of ownership

TCO can bring out so-called ?hidden? costs of ownership. In this example, owners chose to include all the important costs from system acquisition, including labor costs for people who use or support the systems.

When deciding whether or not to acquire a new system, it is easy to focus excessively on hardware and software costs. Leaders should focus instead, however, on the Personnel costs that come with the system. These ?People costs? are 68.8% of the very large TCO. As a result, how these people are trained, employed, and managed will ultimately play a greater role in determining?actual cost of ownership than other factors, such as the choice of HW or SW?vendor.

Potential problem alerts

TCO can help spotlight potential cost problems before they become real problems.
In the IT world, for instance,?change costs?can often exceed forecast and budget. These typically include costs due to upgrading, adding capacity, reconfiguring, adding users, migrating to different platforms, and so on.

All of the change cost items in this model?could?appear instead under either of two cost column headings,?Acquisition?or?Operating costs. Here, however, the analysts chose to focus on change costs by giving them a?Change cost?column of their own. As a result, it is easier to measure, plan, and control costs specifically due to change. Note especially in this example, change costs represent between 35 and 40% of total cost of ownership in both scenarios.

Identify cost savings and avoided costs

An Incremental Cash Flow Statement Finds Cost Savings and Avoided Costs.
In this example, Proposal Scenario costs are larger than Business as Usual Costs in almost all cells of the cost model. Business as Usual costs are greater in only two cells: Personnel Operational Costs and Personnel Change Costs. Here, however, the Proposal Cost Savings show up as very large negative numbers in the incremental cost model summary. Those two cost savings are more than enough to give the Proposal Scenario a large TCO advantage.

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